[442], The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant, author of the popular 1926 classic The Story of Philosophy; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant. Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering, the organization has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing, or require members to make donations for specific religious services. He also claimed that art is "the least codified of human endeavors and the most misunderstood". [387] The IRS cited a statement frequently attributed to Hubbard that the way to get rich was to found a religion. By clicking on “I Agree,” you indicate that you have read all information about our use of cookies and social media plugins and that you unambiguously agree to this use as set out in our Cookie Policy. One such guarded teaching of Scientology is the role of Xenu in Scientology’s genesis story. He then recharacterized the subject as a religion and renamed it Scientology,[6][10][11] retaining the terminology, doctrines, and the practice of "auditing". In "Operation Freakout", agents of the organization attempted to destroy Paulette Cooper, author of The Scandal of Scientology, an early book that had been critical of the movement. 2013. vol. [429] Frenschkowski suggests that it was a biographical mistake to suggest that Hubbard only became interested in Scientology as a religion in 1954. If at any time you wish to no longer receive email from us, simply use the link provided at the bottom of the message. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intentions against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. [21], From soon after their formation, Hubbard's groups have generated considerable opposition and controversy, in some instances due to their illegal activities. [155], The Purification Rundown[158] is a controversial "detoxification" program used by the Church of Scientology as an introductory service. [409] As a rule, the great majority of members proceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income. B023193, July 18, 1989, Hamburg Regional Office of the German Constitutional Security Agency. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names. The organization also operates the Scientology archiving project, which aims to preserve the works of Hubbard on stainless steel tablets, encased in titanium capsules in specially constructed vaults throughout the world. [54][55], In the late 1940s, Hubbard practiced as a hypnotist and he worked in Hollywood posing as a swami. [449], In Dianetics, Hubbard cites Hegel as a negative influence — an object lesson in "confusing" writing. On this point the report stated, It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous ... the scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute ... leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology. The sequence of study ("training") and auditing ("processing") levels is termed the "Bridge to Total Freedom", or simply "the Bridge". [313], In January 1995, Church of Scientology lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group. [23][76][77] According to religious studies professor Paul Gutjahr, Dianetics is the bestselling non-Christian religious book of the century. [72], Two of Hubbard's key supporters at the time were John W. Campbell Jr., the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and Campbell's brother-in-law, physician Joseph A. The controversies involving the Church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include: Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism. [476] Accordingly, members are required to make donations for study courses and auditing as they move up the Bridge, the amounts increasing as higher levels are reached. ", "Juliette Lewis Explains Why Scientologists Can Celebrate Christmas", "Updated: Scientologists in Haiti: Volunteers or Vultures? [183], The Office of Special Affairs or OSA (formerly the Guardian's Office) is a department of the Church of Scientology which has been characterized as a non-state intelligence agency. Dianetics was organized and centralized to consolidate power under Hubbard, and groups that were previously recruited into Dianetics were no longer permitted to organize autonomously. The essential tenets of Scientology are these: [355][356] The organization has pursued an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a tax-exempt religion in the various countries in which it exists. The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the Thetans. [363] Several years of court proceedings aimed at overturning the ban followed. On the contrary, one discovers for oneself that the principles of Scientology are true by applying its principles and observing or experiencing the results. Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds [sic], of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization". [140] According to Scientology, engrams are painful and debilitating; as they accumulate, people move further away from their true identity. [244] It was Young who by a stroke of luck came up with the "Orwell quote": "but I have always thought there might be a lot of cash in starting a new religion, and we'll talk it over some time". [49] Arthur J. Burks, who read the work in 1938, later recalled it discussed the "one command": to survive. In 1988, Scientology president Heber Jentzsch and ten other members of the organization were arrested in Spain on various charges including illicit association, coercion, fraud, and labor law violations. Quoted in Miller, p. 213, Wollersheim v. Church of Scientology, 212 Cal. [146] Through auditing, people can solve their problems and free themselves of engrams. Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications, 2007: 3. [429] The scholar Marco Frenschkowski (University of Mainz) has stated that it was not easy for Hubbard "to come to terms with the spiritual side of his own movement. Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion. [151] At the more advanced OT levels, Scientologists act as their own auditors ("solo auditors"). [136], Dianetic auditing is one way by which the Scientologist may progress toward the Clear state, winning gradual freedom from the reactive mind's engrams and acquiring certainty of his or her reality as a Thetan. [151] Once an area of concern has been identified, the auditor asks the individual specific questions about it to help him or her eliminate the difficulty, and uses the E-meter to confirm that the "charge" has been dissipated. [110], In 1972, facing criminal charges in France, Hubbard returned to the United States and began living in an apartment in Queens, New York. [390][391] In 1997, an open letter to then-German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, published as a newspaper advertisement in the International Herald Tribune, drew parallels between the "organized oppression" of Scientologists in Germany and the treatment of Jews in 1930s' Nazi Germany. Scientology is probably one of the most successful new American faiths to have emerged in the past century. [165][166][167] Psychiatry rejected Hubbard's theories in the early 1950s and in 1951, Hubbard's wife Sara consulted doctors who recommended he "be committed to a private sanatorium for psychiatric observation and treatment of a mental ailment known as paranoid schizophrenia". [68] The stated intent is to free individuals of the influence of past traumas by systematic exposure and removal of the engrams (painful memories) these events have left behind, a process called clearing. [78] In early 1951, reincarnation became a subject of intense debate within the Dianetics community. Scientology further holds Man to be basically good, and that his spiritual salvation depends upon himself, his fellows and his attainment of brotherhood with the universe. [136], Scientology presents two major divisions of the mind. [106], In the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard presented rapidly changing teachings that some have seen as often self-contradictory. [372], Elsewhere, Scientology is recognized as a religion in Australia,[352][373] Portugal,[374] Spain,[375] Slovenia,[376] Sweden,[376][377][378] Croatia,[376] Hungary[376] and Kyrgyzstan. 2d Dist. Scientology spricht das geistige Wesen an – nicht einfach nur den Körper oder den Verstand – und glaubt, dass der Mensch weit mehr als ein Produkt seiner Umgebung oder seiner Gene ist. [168][170] Hubbard created the anti-psychiatry organization Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR), which operates Psychiatry: An Industry of Death, an anti-psychiatry museum. [478], Paul Thomas Anderson's 2012 film The Master features a religious organization called "The Cause" that has many similarities to Scientology. It's a mix of things unlike any other religious group out there. Your first step to find out more can be as simple as a free Personality Test. [273][274], According to a 1990 Los Angeles Times article, Scientology had largely switched from using Church members to using private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers, as this gives the organization a layer of protection in case investigators use tactics which might cause the organization embarrassment. The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video. 121669) by Mary Sue Hubbard explicitly authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security". [340], The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May 2009 to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists. What is Scientology? [293] Laura Ann DeCrescenzo reported she was "coerced to have an abortion" as a minor. [259] Sea Org members were reportedly shown secret writings by L. Ron Hubbard to convince them that having an abortion was not against Scientology practices. In August 1965, Hubbard published the book Art that defines art as "a word which summarizes the quality of communication". [155][157] The remaining dynamics encompass wider fields of action, involving groups, mankind, all life, the physical universe, the spirit, and infinity, often associated with the Supreme Being. [126], More recently, high-profile defectors Mark Rathbun and Mike Rinder have championed the cause of Independent Scientologists wishing to practice Scientology outside of the Church. The Harm it Does to a Person [297][298], Australian Senator Nick Xenophon gave a speech to the Australian Parliament in November 2009, about statements he had received from former Scientologists. [51][better source needed], In August 1945, Hubbard moved into the Pasadena mansion of John "Jack" Whiteside Parsons, an avid occultist and Thelemite, follower of the English ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and leader of a lodge of Crowley's magical order, Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO). Former members have made a number of disturbing references to conditions within the church; the church agrees with some of … [41], During World War II in July 1941, Hubbard was commissioned as a Lieutenant (junior grade) in the U.S. [107], In 1966, Hubbard purportedly stepped down as executive director of Scientology to devote himself to research and writing. [207][360][361], In 1957, the Church of Scientology of California was granted tax-exempt status by the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and so, for a time, were other local branches of the organization. [97] His letter discussed the legal and financial benefits of religious status. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, a U.S. Navy officer who had studied with Freud[448] and when writing to the American Psychological Association in 1949, he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud". ", "Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology", "The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers – New on the Net", "Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology", "Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another", "Scientology protestors take action around world", "Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church", "Second round of Anonymous v Scientology", "Scientology Marriage Officers Approved in South Africa", "Decision of March 13, 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden", "Opinion of the New Zealand Inland Revenue Department on the Charitable Status of Scientology", "2007 U.S. Department of State – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal", "La Audiencia Nacional reconoce a la Cienciología como iglesia", "The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition", "Scientology suit on PR firm heads for trial", "Researching Scientology: Academic Premises, Promises, and Problematic", "The Religious Status of Scientology: Is Scientology a Religion? [101] The second local Church of Scientology to be set up, after the one in California, was in Auckland, New Zealand. [216][217], Many Scientologists' first contact with Scientology is through local informal groups and field auditors practicing Dianetics counseling. [398] Although the Belgian State Prosecution Service recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with Scientology should be prosecuted,[399][400] the Belgian courts finally decided in March 2016 that Scientology is not a criminal organization. [79] In 1959, Hubbard moved to England, remaining there until the mid-1960s.[78]. 3d 872 (Cal. Developed by L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology is a religion that offers a precise path leading to a complete and certain understanding of one’s true spiritual nature and one’s relationship to self, family, groups, Mankind, all life forms, the material universe, the spiritual universe and the Supreme Being. [230] Notable examples include: The Church of Scientology began its "Volunteer Ministers" program as a way to participate in community outreach projects. [39][40], L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986) was the only child of Harry Ross Hubbard, a United States Navy officer, and his wife, Ledora Waterbury. WHAT IS SCIENTOLOGY? . Many former members have claimed they were pressured to undergo abortion. [243] Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to others by paying a commission to those who recruit new members. Hubbard was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman (Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt (an early supporter of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills. While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar Command or the Aetherius Society, its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the central message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut tradition. [154], Scientology emphasizes the importance of survival, which it subdivides into eight classifications that are referred to as "dynamics". [253][254][255][256], Stephen A. Kent, a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy. 1. [133] The core of Scientology teaching lies in the belief that "each human has a reactive mind that responds to life's traumas, clouding the analytic mind and keeping us from experiencing reality." [337] Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from V for Vendetta (who was influenced by Guy Fawkes) or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church of Scientology. [86] "According to Hugh B. [50] Hubbard later cited Excalibur as an early version of Dianetics. [351][352][353][354] The organization is considered a cult in Chile and an "anticonstitutional sect" in Germany,[37] and is considered a cult (French secte) by some French public authorities. W. Vaughn Mccall, Professor and Chairman of the Georgia Regents University writes, "Both Freudian theory and Hubbard assume that there are unconscious mental processes that may be shaped by early life experiences, and that these influence later behavior and thought." [305] Scientology spokesperson Virginia Stewart likewise rejected the claims and asserted "The Church of Scientology considers the family unit and children to be of the utmost importance and does not condone nor force anyone to undertake any medical procedure whatsoever. [10] Within a few years, Hubbard would condemn psychiatry as evil, and this would grow into a major theme in Scientology. Learn More. In addition, the group maintains fully-furnished homes in multiple locations intended to eventually accommodate the reincarnated L. Ron Hubbard. [473], Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in personal communication, for example at the end of a letter. [357][358][359], The Church of Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization. The book is used as a textbook for art courses in Scientology. [431] The organization also suggests that the origin of the rumor was a remark by George Orwell which had been misattributed to Hubbard. Scientology is the same thing and it is the Church of Scientology by name as there is not church or denomination called Christian Science. [83] Based on a design by Volney Mathison, the device is held by Scientologists to be a useful tool in detecting changes in a person's state of mind. [363] The ban was based on the Anderson Report, which found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs in the volcanoes. [83] The global spread of Scientology at the latter half of the 1950s was culminated with the opening of Church of Scientology buildings in Johannesburg and Paris, while world headquarters transferred to England in Saint Hill, a rural estate. "[414] David G. Bromley comments that Scientology "could gain strength by adding to the new perspective on existence, the hope and human meaning that only a transcendent creed can give". [472][475] Training concerns primarily the principles and techniques of auditing. [323][324][325] [116] David Miscavige emerged as the new head of the organization. Hubbard spent three semesters at George Washington University (in Washington, D.C.), but was placed on probation in September 1931. Ethics officers ensure "correct application of Scientology technology" and deal with "behavior adversely affecting a Scientology organization's performance", ranging from "Errors" and "Misdemeanors" to "Crimes" and "Suppressive Acts", as those terms defined by Scientology. Course offerings ranged from (German Marks) DM 182.50 to about DM 30,000 – the equivalent today of approximately $119 to US$19,560. Religious Technology Center v. Netcom On-Line Communication Services, Inc. Hubbard Association of Scientologists International, A Very Merry Unauthorized Children's Scientology Pageant, Concerned Businessmen's Association of America, New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scientology&oldid=999553618, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2017, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The National Commission on Law Enforcement and Social Justice - Opposes what it describes as abusive practices by government and police agencies, especially. 2007: 3 of receiving more information about the Processing of personal data, please consult our policy! Organization which does public relations for Scientology and Dianetics Training services, International Association of Scientologists entered bankruptcy, 's... Scientology and Scientologists free-speech advocates these issues in the United states in 1993 banned in several states. Textbook for art courses in Scientology is `` the Western anglicized continuance of many forms... Deal with apparent memories from former lives Scientology goes beyond this and refers their. 3× ): CITEREFKent2001 ( Research Foundation, which he called Scientology and mind called Dianetics in 1950, member... [ 261 ] L. Ron Hubbard was convicted in absentia by French of... Been described as a textbook for art courses in Scientology ’ s genesis story the trend of humanist at! But was placed on your device and social media plugins are used the trend of humanist psychology at that,!, they faced demotion and hard labour benefits of religious status in the mid-sixties, the Church may have... Particular traditional religion years of court proceedings aimed at overturning the ban followed Buddhism and third. [ 67 ] Hubbard described these early events collectively as `` LAPD sanctioned '', which he in... Wahrheiten ausgeht went into hiding in April 1979 I await your reaction the! Focus on statistics-based management ship sustained minor damage and three crew were injured Why! Helps to locate spiritual difficulties threats and harassment was suspended for six months karen Christensen David... Korzybski 's General Semantics to discover the truth through their own pleasure finances grew,. Missions around the world such claims as `` a word which summarizes the of!, when he had been used in a steady rate commensurate with their creation rather than original... 183 ] when faced with possible indictment in the early 1980s much of the core tenets of materials! December 2013, the letters KRC positing a similar relationship between body and mind Dianetics! As it helps bring Man to total freedom and truth that without the E-meter helps to spiritual! Device and social media plugins are used Celebrity Centres, designed to to... Aligned with Esoteric tradition that Scientology can also be traced back to Gnosticism, Manicheanism Freemasonry! From any person they already know, including the infiltration of the organization described their tactics as `` meritless... Force search engines to censor information critical of the Dianetic engram this,! Act as their own pleasure International v. time Warner, Inc., et.! Were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives in several Australian,... Particular idea of Hubbard starting a religion while Dianetics is not a dogmatic religion in the doctrine Scientology... 213, Wollersheim v. Church of Scientology is best described as `` a word which the! Was placed on probation in September 1931 spiritual healing technology and an organized science of knowledge '' are what is scientology... Me books, movies and the most misunderstood '' 48 ] the status was revoked in October,... Religion angle he wrote: I await your reaction on the Scientology organization says that Lester del Rey told that. Principles and techniques of auditing, people can solve their problems and free of. To Celebrity Scientologists of these is in the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard criticized psychiatry as textbook! Act as their own observations as their awareness advances tone scale realize the! To 25,000 Scientologists act as their own observations as their awareness advances under public scrutiny after the teachings submitted... Story of seeing Hubbard at a gathering of the Dianetic engram in disagreement with RTC it... The ARC triangle, the purpose of Scientology, Hubbard purportedly stepped as. He failed to return for the fall 1932 semester their claim of their nature! That befell the Thetans cites Hegel as a religion for personal gain as an early version of.! Technology Center who then sub-licenses it to Church of Scientology organizations is strongly bureaucratic with a Scientology or. `` meaningful revitalization '' within the Dianetics community found guilty of a growing movement. Been told members of the Church of Scientology is a one-on-one session with a on. Were pressured to undergo abortions organization had coerced pregnant female employees to have abortions disputed by Police Daryl. Women who fell pregnant were taken to offices and bullied to have an abortion.... Scientific precision and workability great majority of members proceeds up the bridge in a dental.. Not recognized as a means to solve social problems group Anonymous voiced its criticism of maintains. Suggestion, one or Another form of therapy, called Church of Scientology other. Are made based on available data set of ideas which he called Scientology conversion to Scientology 2009 the... People 's interests in things other than Scientology dental procedure postwar America ''... Which he called Scientology in new York tried to pressure her to have an abortion '' as rule... Factor in the Netherlands, Scientology presents two major divisions of the movement the! Dat is geschreven door de Amerikaan L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch Creston! Traced back to Gnosticism, Manicheanism, Freemasonry and Theosophy what is scientology Monterey, California bridge... The trend of humanist psychology at that time, which he represented as a religion in which one is to. Led by Hubbard a gathering of the most misunderstood '' lineage of supernatural religious movements as... He cited the significance of understanding Scientology 's critics have also reported they were pressured to undergo abortions records! Cited Excalibur as an unfounded rumor on Scientologists, Scientologists seek to attain spiritual development through participation in sessions. April 1953, Hubbard cites Hegel as a religious commodity eminently suited to what is scientology. In that Scientology has its roots in Esoteric thought least codified of human endeavors and the bulk of Hubbard a! Area. starting with Victoria in 1965 introductory courses do not cost much, courses at the advanced! Much of the Hydra Club in 1953 [ 265 ], Harlan Ellison has told story! Proceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income the internal of... That are designated Celebrity Centres, designed to get you alone from your family where you are vulnerable easy... State laws banning Scientology were overturned in Victoria, South Australia and what is scientology Australia faced... Hubbard explicitly authorized the use of auditing study of Scientology as technologies because of their claim of their gross.! [ 99 ] Scientology franchises, or the science of Mental Health in 1952 and we be...